UNODC has issued a new publication entitled “Smuggling of Migrants into, through and from North Africa: A thematic review and annotated bibliography of recent publications.” Most of the reviewed literature and data are from 2008 and earlier dates and therefore the publication does not include references to more recent events, e.g. the Italy-Libya migration agreement. But it is a comprehensive and useful publication. The 16 page Annotated Bibliography is a very good resource.
According to the UNODC web site, the publication “focuses primarily on the patterns and dynamics of migrant smuggling, as it concerns the North African region. Recognizing, however, that irregular migration and smuggling flows are transnational in nature, the review goes beyond North Africa, to also cover sub- Saharan African and European countries affected along the various smuggling routes. The aim of the review is twofold: to describe major findings on smuggling of migrants; into, through and from North Africa, and to highlight the need for further research on specific issues that have not yet been studied.”
Table of Contents:
- I. Introduction
- II. Quantifying irregular migration and smuggling of migrants
- III. Migrant smuggling routes
- IV. Profiles and characteristics of smuggled migrants
- V. Smuggler-migrant relationships
- VI. Organizational structures of migrant-smuggling networks
- VII. Modus operandi of migrant smuggling
- VIII. Smuggling fees
- IX. The human and social costs of smuggling
- X. Summary of findings
- XI. Annotated bibliography
Click here for the publication.